Agriculture (from seed to paddy)
1.1 Seed selection
1.2 Land preparation
1.3 Crop establishment
1.4 Water management
1.5 Nutrient management
1.6 Crop health management
Selection of Seeds
The use of quality seeds in cultivation of rice is an important factor to get better crop yield. Therefore, proper care has to be taken in selecting seeds of the best quality. Much of the success in raising the healthy seedlings depends on the quality of seed. Seeds intended for sowing should satisfy the following requirements :-
- The seed should belong to the proper variety, which is proposed to be grown.
- The seed should be clean and free from obvious mixtures of other seeds.
- The seed should be mature, well developed and plump in size.
- The seed should be free from obvious signs of age or bad storage
- The seed should have a high germinating capacity.
Before sowing the seed should be treated with fungicides which protects the seed against soil-born fungi and also give a boost to the seedlings.
Land development is the costliest pperation in farming. It involves jungle clearance, soil opening with deep tillage equipment, moving soil from high to low spots, making farm roads, field bunding and levelling .etc. These operations require use of self propelled and heavy equipment such as crawler tractors with heavy duty ploughs and dozers, high horsepower tractors with dozing arid hoeing attachment,s. carpers, ditchers, chisel ploughs, subsoilers, terracers, levellers etc. The tillage operations, defined as mechanical manipulation of soil, are performed to achieve the desired seedbed to provide optimum environment for seed germination and plant growth.Seedbed preparation for sowing / planting of different crops is done through primary and secondary tillage operations.
Method of establishment of rice can be broadly divided into direct sowing of pre germinated or ungerminated seeds and transplanting of seedlings. The choice of the method of establishment depends on factors such as,
- age of the variety
- availability of moisture
- climatic conditions
- availability of inputs and labour
The science and art directed to link soil, crop, weather, and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation, and soil and water conservation practices to achieve the goals of optimizing nutrient use efficiency, yields, crop quality, and economic returns, while reducing off-site transport of nutrients that may impact the environment.
The water requirement of rice crop is comparatively higher than any other crop of the similar duration. Assured and timely supply of irrigation water has a considerable influence on the yield of the crop. During the crop growth period, the water requirement is generally high at the initial seedling establishment stage. After the transplanting , water should be allowed to stand in the field at a depth of two to five centimeters till the seedlings are well established. The second, the most important critical stage is tillering to flowering and in this period the crop should not be subjected to soil moisture stress. The water supply should be ensured in required amount during panicle initiation to flowering stage. About five centimeters depth of water should be maintained in the field up to the dough stage of the crop. Before harvesting, water should be drained out from the field to allow quick and uniform maturity of grain.
Rice can be grown in all type of soils like light to heavy soil, except very sandy. Clay soil is the best for rice cultivation due to its high water holding capacity.
Flat fields having smooth surface are better for rice cultivation as it facilitates even and equal distribution of water.
Clay, silt clay, silt clay loam, textures of soil are best for Paddy crop.
Slightly acid soils having a pH value of 6 to 7 are better for paddy cultivation. However, it has been found to be grown in a wide range of pH varying from 4 to 8.
Harvesting is the process of collecting the mature rice crop from the field. Paddy harvesting activities include cutting, stacking, handling, threshing, cleaning, and hauling.These can be done individually or a combine harvester can be used to perform the operations simultaneously.